Digestive Tincture


120 mL (4.06 oz)


ginger root*, turmeric root*, meadowsweet leaf**, German chamomile flower*, black peppercorn* extracted in 40% potato vodka (*organic/**wildcrafted)

organic ingredients


Pure organic ingredients that are completely earth-friendly.

wildcrafted herbs


Ethically wild harvested plants from their natural habitats.

Non-GMO ingredients


All ingredients are non-GMO (not genetically modified).

Kosher ingredients


Herbs are Kosher and everything is made with plant-based ingredients.



Ingredients do not contain gluten.



Everything is handmade. We use minimal product packaging and large quantities for less waste.



We do not test on animals, nor contribute to the testing of animals.



Our herbs are lab-tested by a third-party laboratory to maintain quality and purity.

Good Manufacturing Practices

Good Manufacturing Practices

We follow the current good manufacturing practices according to law.

A blend of ginger, turmeric, meadowsweet, chamomile, black peppercorn help to induce normal digestion and relieve digestive conditions. Digestive Tincture can be used during digestive distress and sickness for bloating, flatulence, gas, pain, indigestion (dyspepsia), heartburn, acid reflux, motion sickness, upset stomach, nausea, diarrhea, vomiting, and gastroenteritis. As a digestive therapy, it can be therapeutically taken before or after eating for inducing optimal digestion, helping malabsorption, and used in combination and conjunction of any doctor-prescribed treatment of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis, and other digestive disorders.

Herbal treatment does not negate the importance of eating a high-quality diet and herbal treatment is used in conjunction of whole being needs, like eating a variety of whole foods, drinking plenty of water, and exercising regularly, which can help many underlying causes of discomforts and conditions of the digestive system.

Suggested Use

Gently swirl tincture, then fill dropper. A full dropper will seemingly fill halfway, however this signifies a full dropper, measuring 1 mL, which is about 20 to 25 drops. Administer directly under the tongue, dilute in a small amount of water or fruit juice, mix with maple or blackstrap molasses to create a medicinal syrup, or add to a cup of herbal tea for a more powerful herbal remedy. To preserve the quality of your tincture, avoid touching the dropper to your mouth when administering. Empty dropper and securely close bottle after each use. Store in a cool, dry, dark location. Tinctures have a stable shelf life and will last for years.

Take orally:

Take remedially during digestive distress, bloating, flatulence, gas, pain, indigestion, heartburn, acid reflux, motion sickness, upset stomach, nausea, diarrhea, vomiting, and gastroenteritis. Take therapeutically before or after eating for optimal digestion, helping malabsorption, and augmenting treatment of IBS-D, IBD, Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis, and other digestive disorders. Take 1-6 mL per day, as needed. For children under 12 years but older than 2 years, take 1⁄2-2 mL per day, as needed.

Supplement Facts

Dosage: 1 mL (120 doses per bottle)
Daily Limit: 2-6 mL

Amount per dosage
Ginger root 82.5 mg
Turmeric root 60 mg
Meadowsweet leaf 50 mg
Chamomile flower 45 mg
Black Pepper berry 12.5 mg

The recommended dose varies based on condition, sensitivity, body chemistry, and body weight. Each person will need to experiment to discover what dose works best with a specific tincture. Tinctures are used as needed. This recognizes that each person finds their constitution and condition in varying degrees, and possibly varying times of day. If you have never used the tincture before, it is best to initially take only about 1/4 to 1/2 the recommended dosage, slowly increasing the dosage as needed with each use determining what dosage is best and when.

Safety Considerations

  • ♡ Meadowsweet should not be used if constipated. Due to the high tannin content, much like black tea, meadowsweet is not recommended in high concentrations for long-term continual use or with conditions of chronic constipation, IBS with constipation (IBS-C), iron deficiency (anemia), and malnutrition, however, within the blend of the other herbs, this herb is generally safe for daily use, especially when given at optimal times of day.
  • ♡ Chamomile may cause allergic reactions to those sensitive to plants in the Asteraceae family. Meadowsweet should be avoided by people who are allergic or sensitive to salicylates, like aspirin. If you have never used the tincture before, it is recommended to only take a small amount to ensure no allergic reaction occurs. Each product description includes a complete list of ingredients. People with sensitivities to any listed ingredient should not use the product.
  • ♡ Careful consideration should be given when administering herbs to children under 12 years of age. Chamomile, as well as Peppermint, is useful for children.
  • ♡ Herbs are powerful. If you are pregnant, nursing, or on any medications, it is recommended to consult with a health care practitioner before using herbs internally.
  • ♡ These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). This product is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent any disease.


Zingiber officinale

Chromolithograph of Ginger by Walther Otto Müller, C. F. Schmidt, and K. Gunther
Chromolithograph of Ginger by Walther Otto Müller, C. F. Schmidt, and K. Gunther from Köhler's Medizinal-Pflanzen Vol. 1 (1887), Vol. 2 (1890), and Vol. 3 (1898)

Botany. Ginger is native to southeastern Asia and cultivated in tropical areas throughout the world. It is a perennial root that creeps and increases underground in tuberous joints where a green stalk grows 2 feet with narrow lanceolate leaves that die down annually and a flower stalk rising directly from the root to an oblong scallop flower spike.

History. The plant was naturalized in America after the discovery by the Spaniards, and the root (rhizome) is used in cooking and folk medicine. It is used as a spice to add a pungent flavor to food, but the root has a long tradition and has been historically used for a number of medicinal purposes.

Constituents. Ginger root has more than 100 compounds that have been identified, including: amino acid derivatives (zingibain), phenolic compounds (gingerols, paradols, zingerone, shogoals, dehyro-gingerdione, gingerdione, vallinoids, galanals), polyphenol (gingerenone), terpenes (sesquiterpenes: zingiberene, β-bisabolene; diterpenes: galanal, galanolactone), vitamins (C, B6/folate), and minerals (potassium, magnesium).

Qualities. It is pungent, sweet, warm, moist, and stimulating, and it is helpful for depressed, constricted states.

Actions. The root carries many actions, including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, carminative, hypotensive, hypertensive, cholagogic, and stomachic properties.

Our ginger root, Zingiber officinale, is organic, non-GMO, and Kosher. The value of the herb has been shown in many clinical studies. Reportedly, ginger has been effective in treating nausea and vomiting, gastrointestinal function, pain, inflammation, and metabolic syndromes.

Ginger is an amazing herb helpful as a digestive therapy and during digestive distress and sickness. Ginger is a pungent appetite stimulant and is not only popular for its flavor, but for the antioxidant, hypotensive, hypertensive, cholagogic, and stomachic properties. Research shows the herb’s ability to stimulate gastric motility (the movement and contraction of the smooth muscles of the gastrointestinal tract during digestion), and promote digestion. Ginger contains several digestive enzymes, including zingibain. The herb can be taken before eating to initiate the digestive system. It stimulates the flow of saliva and increases the concentration of the digestive enzyme (amylase) in saliva. Saliva is important for breaking down food. The herb activates peristalsis, the movement of food through the system, and increases intestinal muscle tone. As a herb, ginger eases discomfort caused by flatulence and relieves indigestion. The volatile oils are anti-inflammatory and soothe the mucous lining and the muscle layers of the gastrointestinal tract (alimentary canal). Ginger clears up gas, flatulence, indigestion, stomachache, and other digestive problems. It is effective during stomach flu, with an effective regimen beginning at the first sign of digestive illness. It is helpful for nausea, diarrhea, vomiting, upset stomach, and digestive distress. Although the herb does not directly affect blood sugar levels, ginger can be advantageous for hyperglycemic conditions. It works indirectly to increase the availability of dietary nutrients for digestion and metabolism. When improper digestion and absorption of foods occur, ginger can facilitate the utilization of the body’s energy stores, further inducing optimal digestion.

Ginger is quite valuable for nausea and vomiting. As an antiemetic, it can be used for digestive distress, morning sickness, motion sickness, nausea, and vomiting. Ginger is effective for motion sickness. Motion sickness symptoms can include dizziness, nausea, vomiting, drowsiness, and sweating. Ginger can be relied upon as a remedy. Research published in the British medical journal The Lancet showed the herb to be more effective than a popularly-known product in preventing symptoms of motion sickness. It was shown to be equally effective for car, boat, train, and plane rides when taken before travel and during, slowly decreasing dosages as travel prolongs since motion sickness decreases the longer the travel time. For prevention and treatment of motion sickness, ginger can be used prior to travel, and then periodically taken throughout the duration of travel and on any onset of upset stomach. The herb alleviates dizziness and can help as part of a broad treatment for vertigo. There have been several randomized clinical trials to show the treatment on nausea and vomiting during pregnancy with ginger, concluding that ginger is as effective as other medications to alleviate nausea and vomiting (antiemetic), such as pyridoxine, metoclopramide, or dimenhydrinate. A Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort study reported that ginger did not affect the risk of teratogenicity and abnormalities in birth. Further, another study found that there were no severe side effects with ginger consumption in controlled, uncontrolled, and pre-clinical studies, along with the alleviation of nausea and vomiting. These results support the idea that ginger can be used as an antiemetic therapy in women during pregnancy. During pregnancy, it is recommended to consult a doctor before using herbs internally. The herb is generally recognized as safe even in high doses and with the approval of a doctor can be used therapeutically to ease morning sickness, upset stomach, nausea, and vomiting during pregnancy. It can be taken during predicted or most vulnerable times, such as morning or before eating.

Ginger has been found to help coughs, allay airway inflammation, and give therapy for airway diseases, such as asthma, through the ability to relax smooth muscles in the airway. Research shows the compounds shogaol and gingerol are the active components of this relaxing and dilating of the airway smooth muscle (bronchorelaxation). A dose-dependent relaxation was observed, with the most substantial relaxation occurring within 30 minutes of 50 and 100 mg dosages of ginger, congruent with 1 mL of Tincture.

Ginger energizes the blood, producing a feeling of warmness throughout the body. The terpenes of ginger are stimulating to peripheral circulation. This can be beneficial for bad circulation, chilblains, and cramps. In fever, ginger is helpful as a diaphoretic to induce perspiration and balance body temperature. Ginger is beneficial in stimulating circulation in the gastrointestinal tract and other parts of the body. A study found the herb to have a powerful positive stimulating effect on muscular contractions of the atria, increasing overall circulation. Ginger demonstrates anti-inflammatory effects in rheumatoid arthritis. Studies have shown the herb to reduce platelet aggregation, which is an inflammatory response when blood cells tend to stick together or clot. This allows proper blood flow and circulation during inflammation. Several studies show to improve inflammation and pain in arthritis-related diseases, particularly osteoarthritis (OA) therapeutic treatment of 500 mg of ginger with results showing after 3 months.

With anti-inflammatory and circulatory stimulating properties as contributing factors, the root can be helpful in times of pain. A few studies show that a therapeutic daily dose of 750 and 1500 mg of ginger was effective treatment for painful period pain (primary dysmenorrhea). The results reported that ginger improved pain relief and had similar effectiveness with medications and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), such as ibuprofen. Other types of pain were also improved with treatment of ginger. In randomized clinical trials, ginger has been shown to attenuate pain in headaches, migraines, and back pain. Ginger promoted a reduction in pain with a treatment of 400 mg for migraine in a double-blind placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial. Dosages of ginger for pain in the studies vary from 400 to 2000 mg of ginger dependent on severity.

The herb is shown to have cholinergic action, which down-regulates the activity of the heart helpful during digestion or stress. Ginger antagonizes the effects of adrenergic stimulation, which is part of the nervous system that comes into play during stress in the body and stimulates the faster activity of the heart. When stress occurs, the cholinergic nervous system attempts to restore equilibrium to the body, including nerves, glands, and muscles. The herb is useful in times of stress to offset the nerve-wracking effects of the stress and calming the bodily systems, including the nervous and digestive systems.

Safety Considerations. Ginger should not be used in combination with morphine, as ginger may interact with morphine and increase the blood levels of it.


Curcuma longa

Chromolithograph of Turmeric by Walther Otto Müller, C. F. Schmidt, and K. Gunther
Chromolithograph of Turmeric by Walther Otto Müller, C. F. Schmidt, and K. Gunther from Köhler's Medizinal-Pflanzen Vol. 1 (1887), Vol. 2 (1890), and Vol. 3 (1898)

Botany. Turmeric is part of the ginger family, Zingiberaceae. The rhizome is the most commonly used part of the plant.

History. Turmeric has long been used in Chinese and Indian cooking and medicine, as well as Western herbalism. Turmeric has a long history for many medicinal preparations dating back thousands of years. Progress in science has proven the wide medicinal effects and the multitude of clinical trials address the efficacy and safety of the herb. Turmeric’s compound, curcumin, was first isolated and recognized in 1815. In the 1970s, the first scientific research on the health benefits of turmeric was recorded. Since then, there has been numerous amounts of scientific research done on this particular herb, which is still being done, expanding the knowledge and use of this powerful plant.

Constituents. Components of turmeric are named curcuminoids, which include curcumin (diferuloyl methane), dimethoxy-curcumin, and bisdemethoxy-curcumin, and various monoterpenoid and sesquiterpenoid volatile oils, including tumerone, atlantone, and zingiberone. The compound curcumin is a flavonoid and contributes to the bright yellow-pigment found in the root of turmeric and in other certain plants in the Zingiberaceae family. Although curcumin is the most well-known and studied constituent of turmeric, the biological activities of demethoxy-curcumin and bisdemethoxy-curcumin are reported to be stronger than curcumin, and therefore, the importance of curcuminoids other than curcumin is gradually increasing.

Qualities. Turmeric is warm, bitter, and earthy.

Actions. The biological activity of turmeric is powerful with , , , , neuroprotective, , and cardioprotective effects.

Our turmeric root, Curcuma longa, is organic, non-GMO, and Kosher. Turmeric is a powerful herb, which antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, neuroprotective, hepatoprotective, and cardioprotective actions work synergistically to contribute to the whole effect of the herb. The bioavailability of turmeric has been the limitation with the medicinal use of the herb. Bioavailability is the rate at which the body absorbs a substance or nutrient. Turmeric, particularly curcumin, is practically insoluble in water. Due to the hydrophobic (repels from water) nature of curcumin, turmeric has a low absorption rate in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. It is rapidly metabolized in the liver and intestinal wall, also contributing to turmeric being poorly absorbed into the body through the bloodstream. This makes the traditional tincturing process invaluable, properly extracting herbs and having all the compounds readily available for absorption through the bloodstream. Consuming black pepper, which contains piperine, along with turmeric can also improve the bioavailability of turmeric. Piperine enhances the absorption of curcumin in turmeric by 2,000% compared to consuming solely turmeric.

Turmeric contains strong activity. An antioxidant is a type of compound that helps the body fight stress and prevents oxidation. Oxidation is a chemical reaction in the body that can produce free radicals and chain reactions. Free radicals are formed in the body when exposed to waste products, bacteria, viruses, UV light, pollution, and environmental toxins, and they can damage cells in the body. Because of many environmental, lifestyle, and pathological situations, excess free radicals can accumulate, resulting in oxidative stress that damages cells. Oxidative stress has been related to sickness, heart disease, cancer, and other chronic diseases. Research suggests that antioxidants reduce damage to oxidative stress to the body by preventing or delaying cell damage. Antioxidants are able to neutralize free radicals and end the destructive chain reactions that they cause. Particularly in turmeric, the antioxidant action of curcumin and other curcuminoids works in many ways. They work in part in the antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase (SOD). SOD eliminates superoxide molecules, which is a common free radical produced in the body. This particularly powerful antioxidant blocks the oxidation of harmful LDL cholesterol. As an antioxidant, turmeric can scavenge free radicals, increase antioxidant enzymes, and inhibit lipid peroxidation. The herb is able to prevent increased free radical generation or accumulation in the body. Curcumin has also shown exhibiting enhanced cellular resistance to oxidative damage. The strong antioxidant action of turmeric permeates and contributes to the other actions and effects of this herb, including anti-inflammatory, antiviral, antidepressant, and anti-anxiety.

Turmeric is especially useful for inflammation, which its properties and responses have been immensely shown. Turmeric reduces inflammation and will help relieve symptoms from conditions caused by inflammation and infection. The effect is created by the herb’s ability to lower histamine levels and possibly increasing the production of natural cortisone by the adrenal glands. Prostaglandins are found in almost every tissue, and they create bodily reactions that cause pain, fever, and inflammation, which is part of the immune response in the healing process. High levels of prostaglandins are produced in response of injury or infection and cause inflammation. Turmeric inhibits biosynthesis of inflammatory prostaglandins during bodily inflammation. The antioxidant properties of turmeric contribute to the anti-inflammatory effect given that oxidative stress triggers chronic inflammation and a close relationship between antioxidant compounds and its anti-inflammatory potential is evident. Curcumin is shown to interact with numerous molecular targets involved in inflammation. Clinical trials indicate turmeric to be a therapeutic medicine for diseases, such as inflammatory bowel disease, pancreatitis, arthritis, chronic anterior uveitis, and certain types of cancer. In one study, 32 patients with chronic anterior uveitis were given 375 mg curcumin, 3 times daily for 12 weeks, and it resulted in 86% patients showing that this particular compound of turmeric was as effective as corticosteroid therapy, the only available treatment. Turmeric has been researched and shown to benefit gastric ulcers. In a clinical trial of 25 patients with endoscopically-diagnosed gastric ulcers, patients were given 600 mg of turmeric 5 times per day. After 4 weeks, 48% completely healed, and after 12 weeks, 76% were ulcer free with no adverse reactions or blood abnormalities, noted with this dosage. This study reveals the therapeutic effect that herbs can have long-term in chronic diseases and conditions. The benefits of turmeric for daily therapeutic use, even at low level dosages for long periods of time, can be effective for chronic inflammatory conditions.

Turmeric has been studied for its hepatoprotective effects preventing damage and tissue injury to the liver. Alcohol, drugs, pollutants, parasites, and dietary components can trigger acute and chronic liver injuries, including liver fibrosis, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, non-alcoholic liver disease, and even cirrhosis. Turmeric can protect the liver from carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) (a potent toxin in the liver), galactosamine, acetaminophen (paracetamol), and aflatoxin-producing fungi Aspergillus. The components of turmeric with choleretic effects increase biliary excretion of bile salts, cholesterol, and bilirubin as well as by increasing bile solubility, therefore, possibly preventing and treating gallstones (cholelithiasis). Curcumin has been shown to be a valuable therapy to prevent oxidative stress-related liver disorders, indicating the further antioxidant qualities and effects. It is further shown that turmeric treatment increased antioxidant levels in the liver that is produced by the cells (endogenous). The herb has shown to help in case of drug-induced hepatotoxicity in conditions triggered by the antibiotic Streptozotocin and acetaminophen (paracetamol) overuse and abuse. It has been shown to protect the liver during paracetamol-induced lesions by taking turmeric an hour before ingesting acetaminophen. It has also been demonstrated that curcumin can attenuate liver fibrosis, and cirrhosis, which is caused by continual liver damage and scarring from diseases and conditions, such as hepatitis and chronic alcoholism. As a hepatoprotective, turmeric can be used to help attenuate the damage that is done to the liver during times of using acetaminophen, antibiotics, and other factors that can cause liver damage.

The effects are usually in correlation with the antimicrobial effect and content, further concreting the use of whole herb for whole benefit. Due to the chemical structure of turmeric’s antioxidant compound, curcumin acts as a natural free radical scavenger reducing oxidative stress. Turmeric has been used as a remedy for the prevention and treatment of many organ and tissue disorders, most of which are associated with inflammation and oxidative stress. It has been shown to treat numerous inflammatory diseases, as the herb alleviates oxidative stress and inflammation and regulates inflammatory and pro-inflammatory pathways related with most chronic inflammatory diseases. In particular, turmeric has been shown to help with neurodegenerative diseases, cardiovascular diseases, allergies, asthma, bronchitis, rheumatoid arthritis, chronic kidney diseases, metabolic diseases (diabetes and obesity), skin diseases, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), and pancreatitis. Allergy, asthma, bronchitis, and pneumonia are inflammatory diseases, and curcumin has shown to help clear constricted airways, increase antioxidant levels, and allay associated inflammation. Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) encompass digestive disorders that involve chronic inflammation in the digestive tract, malfunction of the digestive system, oxidative and nitrosative stress, leukocyte infiltration, and increased pro-inflammatory cytokines, with many studies conducted to show the herb's efficacy for IBD without any significant side effects. Clinical trials reveal turmeric may be a therapeutic herb in pancreatitis and showed to improve the disease's severity. Neurodegenerative diseases are neurological disorders that primarily affect brain functioning due to progressive deterioration of neurons, protein misfolding, and deposition of proteins, plaques, and oxidative stress. It includes a wide range of diseases, such as Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS or Lou Gehrig’s disease), and Huntington's disease. These diseases are incurable because the progressive deterioration of neurons can't be reversed. However, many studies have shown the progression of age-dependent neurodegeneration is associated with inflammation, decreased antioxidants, and increased oxidative damage to proteins, DNA, and lipids, which indicates turmeric as a potential therapy due to its strong anti-inflammatory and antioxidant value. In clinical trials, curcumin improves health by preventing or delaying the onset of various neurodegenerative diseases. Curcuminoids have many properties that regulate debilitating biochemical processes involved in Alzheimer’s diseases, which include reduction of mitochondrial dysfunction-induced oxidative stress and inflammatory responses. Rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic inflammatory disease that impacts organs and tissues, but mainly attacks flexible (synovial) joints. It has been reported that oxidative stress contributes to joint destruction in rheumatoid arthritis. The main treatment of rheumatoid arthritis is to reduce arthritis reaction, inhibit disease development and irreversible bone destruction, protect the joints and muscle function, and ultimately achieve complete remission or low disease activity. Turmeric has also been shown to be an effective therapy of rheumatoid arthritis, regulating inflammatory factors associated with anti-oxidation, with the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activity contributing to the whole effect. Cardiovascular diseases, including heart disease, vascular disease, and atherosclerosis, are the most critical global health threats. Various scientific trials have consistently shown that the risks of the development of cardiovascular diseases are inflammation, oxidative stress, and cell death. Turmeric has beneficial cardiovascular effects, with the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity contributing to the whole effect. The herb has been shown to lower cholesterol and triglyceride levels. This effect may be due to decreased cholesterol uptake in the intestines and increased conversion of cholesterol to bile acids in the liver. The hepatoprotective effect contributes to the excretion of cholesterol. The cardiovascular system benefits of turmeric are the protective effects on atherosclerosis, cardia hypertrophy, heart failure, aortic aneurysm, stroke, myocardial infarction (heart attack), and diabetic cardiovascular complications. Turmeric improves blood vessel circulation and function. Curcumin is reported to enhance endothelial function and vascular homeostasis. The herb can inhibit platelet aggregation preventing platelets from clumping together. By inhibiting platelet aggregation, turmeric enhances circulation.

Turmeric is useful for cold, flu, and infection. The herb can alleviate inflammation due to infections and give potent antioxidant activity during illness. The herb contains immunomodulatory and antiviral activity. Recent studies have examined turmeric as a potential therapy against COVID-19. Turmeric can enhance immunity to fight against various pathogens, including the SARS-CoV-2. One study demonstrated that curcumin potently neutralizes SARS-CoV-2, and concluded that the herb shows potential for treatment of COVID-19. Later, a systematic review of clinical trials examined the herb's potential against COVID-19. The review of 6 studies showed that curcumin led to reductions in typical symptoms, duration of hospitalization, and death in COVID-19 patients with different levels of severity. The benefit of the herb decreased resolution time of several common COVID-19 symptoms, including cough, chills, myalgia, tachypnea, anosmia, and amelioration of lymphocyte counts. It further showed that the curcumin and piperine (compound from black pepper) led to fewer thromboembolic episodes following recovery from COVID-19 infections. SARS-CoV2 infections are characterized by an imbalance in the immune system with hyper-activation of Th1 and Th17 cells and increased production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. These effects can lead to the cytokine storm, which has been linked to more severe COVID-19 disease outcomes and increased mortality. It was shown that another curcuminoid, nanocurcumin, effectively modulated the inflammatory cytokines in COVID-19 patients.

Turmeric has anti-depressant and anti-anxiety action. Turmeric can be used in a number of psychological and mental health disorders, effectively helping chronic stress, anxiety, and depression. There is an increasing wealth of knowledge and research supporting the efficacy of turmeric as a treatment for depression and anxiety. Mental health disorders, including anxiety and major depressive disorder, require a broad treatment in many aspects of whole treatment, and turmeric, with therapeutic daily use, can be used as an antidepressant. The herb possesses many approaches of antidepressant and antianxiety activity, interacting with the nervous system, contributing significant neuroprotection and neuroplasticity activity, and the immune system, allaying inflammation and giving potent antioxidant activity. Studies show that people consuming turmeric daily have sharper brain functions and higher cognitive abilities, revealing the benefit of long-term therapeutic use of the herb. Studies have shown that the full benefits of antidepressant herbal therapy may take about 8 to 12 weeks. One way is that the herb inhibits the monoamine oxidase (MAO) enzyme, which is involved with removing the neurotransmitters serotonin and dopamine. Many antidepressant drugs work similarly as monoamine oxidase inhibitors. Monoamine oxidase (MAO) enzymes are known to exist in 2 forms, one oxidizing dopamine and the other serotonin and norepinephrine. Turmeric, impressively, has the ability to inhibit both forms. Turmeric can boost these necessary neurotransmitters that contribute to mood, disposition, mental health, and overall energy balance. Another antidepressant action of turmeric is the ability to increase brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), enhancing neuronal survival. BDNF plays an important role in nerve survival and growth and contributes to nerve plasticity, which is the capacity of the nervous system to modify itself, functionally and structurally, in response to an incident, experience, or injury. BDNF also regulates glucose and energy metabolism and prevents exhaustion of beta-cells that produce insulin, which is a hormone that controls the level of glucose in the blood. Decreased levels of BDNF are associated depression and with neurodegenerative diseases with neuronal loss, such as Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, multiple sclerosis, and Huntington's disease. There have been several studies showing the improvement of behavioral disturbances and disorders, such as hyperactivity and irritability, with an increase in BDNF expression. By keeping BDNF at a healthy balance, the nervous system can function at an optimal level transferring information between nerves and their targets, and potentially preventing physical and mental illnesses. Turmeric enhances neurogenesis and can significantly increase BDNF production in the brain and lead to improved cognitive performance and mood. The herb's neuro-regenerative ability is unclear, but it is shown to prevent the stress-induced action to decrease serotonin and to reverse the chronic stress-induced action to reduce BDNF protein levels. Turmeric protects against glutamate-induced neurotoxicity and reverses the glutamate-induced reduction of BDNF levels. Studies show that turmeric can protect the integrity of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), which shields the brain from toxic substances in the blood, supplies the brain tissues with nutrients, and filters harmful compounds from the brain back to the bloodstream. Alterations in the BBB can lead to increased infiltration of peripheral material and harmful compounds into the brain, culminating in neuro-inflammation and oxidative stress. In another way, turmeric has potent anti-inflammatory action that contribute to the antidepressant effect. Inflammation has been known to play a major role in major depressive syndrome. Approximately, one-quarter of patients with depression show evidence of low-grade inflammation. Over half show mildly elevated C-reactive protein levels, which is an indicator of inflammation in the body. Dysregulation in the kynurenine pathway, which is induced by inflammation and in turn fuels inflammation and neurotoxicity, has been implicated in depression. In a meta-analysis on many antidepressant clinical trials, it was concluded that alterations in peripheral cytokine levels (inflammatory secretions by cells) were associated with antidepressant treatment outcomes in major depressive disorder. During inflammation, the immune system sends out inflammatory signals. The T-cell dysfunction has been reported in depression. There is a predominance of cytokine-producing helper T-cells, type 1 (Th1) or type 2 (Th2), in major depression. Turmeric inhibits the cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) isoenzyme. It also inhibits transcription of nuclear factor κB (NF-κΒ). It was found that turmeric lowered the levels of interleukin (IL)-1β cytokine by approximately 60%. It blocked the synthesis of nitric oxide synthase enzyme, resulting in the reduction of the release of the inflammatory nitric oxide. Another antidepressant action of turmeric is the antioxidant potency. Increased oxidative and nitrosative stress has been regularly identified in depression, and turmeric can significantly increase antioxidant activity in the body. As an antioxidant, turmeric can lower levels of malondialdehyde, protein carbonyls, thiols, and nitrotyrosines, which are key indicators of oxidative stress. The herb increases the activity of antioxidant enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase, and it increases scavenging activity of reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species, and it protects against the overproduction of nitric oxide. Chronic fatigue is one of the core symptoms of depression. One study showed that turmeric attenuated chronic fatigue through various oxidative stress, such as enhanced lipid peroxidation, nitrite, and TNF-α, and reduced glutathione levels.

The therapeutic use of turmeric has been studied for its role in cancer research. Herbs are not a "cure-all" and are not a substitute for medical care. There is lacking information and more research needed in this field, including determining the optimal dosage, bioavailability, and efficacy of herbs for this type of therapeutic treatment, however, the anticancer and antimutagenic activity of turmeric is worth noting for scientific objectivity. The role in the treatment of cancers with turmeric is very promising, showing clinical research and trial in colon cancer, prostate cancer, skin cancer, pancreatic cancer, liver cancer, and as a potentiate in chemotherapy and radiation therapy. The anticancer properties of turmeric appear to be linked to apoptosis and the herb being toxic to cancer cells yet cytoprotective to normal cells. The body uses several different methods of cell death to rid itself of abnormal, harmful, or unneeded cells. Apoptosis is a mechanism for a cell's death, which is a promising target for anticancer therapy. Cancer cells evade apoptosis, though the immune system depends on this process. There are many signals and pathways that lead to apoptosis. These signals and pathways prime cancer cells by increasing their sensitivity to trigger the apoptotic pathway as opposed to normal healthy cells. The intrinsic pathway of apoptosis begins when an injury occurs within the cell. It uses the mitochondria and mitochondrial proteins, leading to mitochondrial outer membrane pemeabilization (MOMP), which is the point of no return for the cell. The extrinsic pathway of apoptosis begins outside the cell when conditions determine that the cell will die. The increase of proapoptotic proteins and inhibition of antiapoptotic proteins can trigger apoptosis and the death of the tumor cell. In almost half of all human cancers, B-cell lymphoma-2 (BCL-2) expression is elevated and XIAP is overexpressed in many different tumors. These antiapoptotic proteins inhibit the pathway toward apoptosis from a variety of signals including hypoxia, growth factor deprivation, and oxidative stress. Caspases are under-expressed in tumor cells. Caspases are proapoptotic and when activated, bind to and break down proteins in the cell leading to cell death. Cytochrome c is a mediator of the intrinsic pathway and causes caspase activation and the apoptocic response. Turmeric interacts with both intrinsic and apoptotic pathways. It is able to interfere at many different points. Turmeric inhibits BCL-2 and XIAP. The herb also increases the ability for mitochondria to undergo membrane permeability leading to increased release of cytochrome c. The anticarcinogenic properties of turmeric are owed partly to the antioxidant effect and the ability to indirectly increase glutathione levels, aiding in liver detoxification of mutagens and carcinogens and in inhibiting carcinogenic compound (nitrosamine) formation. Turmeric is antimutagenic, which potentially prevents new cancers caused by chemotherapy or radiation therapy used to treat existing cancers. It was shown to inhibit carcinogenesis at 3 stages: tumor promotion, angiogenesis, and tumor growth. Turmeric and the containing curcuminoid compounds, are anticancer by targeting cancer transcription factors (TFs), which are expressed and critical for carcinogenesis. Turmeric potentiates the effect of chemotherapy and acts as an enhancer of radiotherapy. Also, it is found to arrest carcinomatous cells in the G2/M phase of cell cycle, in which cells are more susceptible to cytotoxic effects of radiotherapy. In 2 studies of colon and prostate cancer, the herb inhibited cell proliferation and tumor growth. Turmeric has shown to inhibit uncontrolled spread (metastasis) of skin cancer (melanoma) cells and is useful in deactivating the carcinogens in cigarette smoke and chewing tobacco. For short periods of time, doses of up to 8 grams (8,000 mg) per day have been used in research without any adverse effects. More studies are needed to determine any potential adverse effects associated with long-term, high-dose use. A dose escalation study was conducted with dosages of curcuminoids from 500 to 12,000 mg, and it resulted that high doses of the herb are safe with excellent tolerability warranting further investigation for the herb's use as a long-term chemopreventive agent and the ability to potentiate chemotherapy.


Filipendula ulmaria

Illustration of Meadowsweet by Prof. Dr. Otto Wilhelm Thomé
Illustration of Meadowsweet by Prof. Dr. Otto Wilhelm Thomé from Flora von Deutschland, Österreich und der Schweiz Vol. 1 (1903), Vol. 2 (1904), Vol. 3 (1905), and Vol. 4 (1905)

Botany. Meadowsweet is called by many names, including Queen of the Meadow, Lady of the Meadow, meadow queen, meadowwort, meadwort, and meadsweet. Meadowsweet is a perennial plant very common in European damp meadows and found in eastern North America, which grows 1 to 4 feet tall. The plant has a reddish, angular stem branching near the top bearing alternate pinnate leaves with ovate serrate leaflets that have a downy grayish-white beneath. The small flowers have five petals of creamy white or, less commonly, pink, that are arranged in a terminal corymb with numerous protruding stamens, which bloom during the summer from June to August. Meadowsweet is said to be the true smell of summer.

History. The flowers were used to flavor alcoholic beverages in England and Scandinavia in the fourteenth century. The plant was featured in old European herbals, including John Gerard's The Herball written at the end of the sixteenth century in 1597, being called "Queen of the Meadow" and "meadsweet".

Constituents. The plant contains: phenolic glycosides, phenolic acids and their derivatives (gallic acid, ellagic acid, salicylic acid, methylsalicylate, salicylaldehyde, ethylsalicylate), flavonoids and flavonoid glycosides (quercetin, kaempferol, chalcone derivatives, catechin, epicatechin, rutin, hyperin, spiraeoside, quercitrin, apigenin, astragalin, spiraein, monotropin, gaultherin), tannins, mainly hydrolyzable (tellimagrandin I and II, rugosin A, B1, B2, D, E1, and E2), volatile oils, and vitamin C. The plant contains various salicylates, including salicin, salicylaldehyde, ethylsalicylate, and methylsalicylate. Salicin was found and identified in meadowsweet by Swiss pharmacist, Johann Pagenstecher in 1830, approximately 2 years after the compound was identified in white willow.

Qualities. The herb is cold and dry, helpful in warmed and inflamed states, and it is sweet to the senses with a bitter and astringent nature.

Actions. Meadowsweet has , , antacid, , , and properties.

Our meadowsweet, Filipendula ulmaria, is , naturally organic, non-GMO, and Kosher. Meadowsweet is a member of the rose family and has a bitter and astringent taste of salicin, which was the compound used to form aspirin. It is an effective digestive tonic, helping the stomach and digestive tract by allaying pain and inflammation.

Meadowsweet is full of tannins called hydrolyzable tannins. Tannins have a major impact because of their ability to form complexes with numerous types of molecules, including carbohydrates, proteins, polysaccharides, bacterial cell membranes, and enzymes involved in protein and carbohydrate digestion. Chemically, tannins can be classified as condensed tannins or hydrolyzable tannins. Condensed tannins are more widespread among flowering plants (angiosperms), and in ferns and gymnosperms. Condensed tannins are more common and are derivatives of flavonols, and they are also called proanthocyanidins. Hydrolyzable tannins are limited to dicotyledonous plants (dicots). Both types of tannins can occur in the same plant. Hydrolyzable tannins are soluble in water and alcohol, with which it creates various products, such as gallic or epigallic acids. The chemical reaction of the breakdown of the compound in water is called hydrolysis. Through hydrolysis tannins break down into their phenolic acids and carbohydrates. The herbal extraction of the gallotannins within water or alcohol hydrolyze to gallic acid and glucose, and ellagitannins hydrolyze to ellagic acid and glucose. In plants, tannins are sequestered and isolated in various plant tissues so they don't combine with other substances and interfere with normal plant metabolism. Upon plant cell breakdown, and the extraction of the herbal constituents, their effects are exerted. One of the most important effects attributed to tannins is the astringent action. Astringents cause contraction of tissue, tightening and wrinkling of mucus membranes, decreased permeability of the tissue, and decreased secretions and exudations. Raspberry leaf and black tea are also well-known astringents, containing tannins, and the astringent-tightening in the mouth when drinking it can be felt almost instantaneously. Tannins have numerous applications, dependent upon use: protect inflamed mucous membranes, produce a drying effect on mucous membranes, reduce inflammation and swelling accompanying infection, prevent bleeding in small wounds, reduce excessive uterine bleeding in menorrhagia, and relieve symptoms of diarrhea or dysentery through binding effects in the gut. Meadowsweet is an effective astringent, particularly on the digestive system. In the gut, it can reduce inflammation on the surface of tissue, reduce irritation and pain, improve symptoms of diarrhea, and help various digestive diseases. It protects and soothes mucous membranes of the digestive tract, reducing acidity and easing nausea, vomiting, heartburn (indigestion), hyperacidity, stomach irritation, gastritis, and peptic ulceration.

"Meadsweet is cold and dry, with an evident binding quality ajoined...The leaves and floures farre excell all other growing herbes...for the smell thereof makes the heart merrie, delighteth the senses;"
– John Gerard The Herball (1597), page 1043

The strong astringent action contributes to the anti-inflammatory effect. Meadowsweet has anti-inflammatory, vulnerary, and analgesic properties. Along with white willow bark, the herb is rich is salicylates. The plant contains various salicylates, including salicin, salicylaldehyde, ethylsalicylate, and methylsalicylate. In the digestive tract, these compounds are oxidized into salicylic acid, a substance that is closely related to aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid). The flowers, leaves, and other aerial parts of meadowsweet were shown to contain salicylates, as well as possess anti-inflammatory potential and inhibit inflammation and prostaglandin synthesis. The presence of salicylates show the herbs ability to reduce fever and relieve pain, alleviate pain of rheumatism in muscles and joints, and allay pain and inflammation in the digestive system. Although aspirin, also containing salicylates, can cause peptic ulcers and other side effects, this does not indicate the same for the organic compounds of the herb. Meadowsweet, in contrast, has digestive qualities and action against the formation of ulcers, indicating the quality of herbs in the remedy of inflammation and pain and addressing its underlying causes. Because rheumatic diseases cause inflammation and pain, the astringent, anti-inflammatory, and analgesic qualities contribute to the antirheumatic effect of the herb helping muscles and joints that are sore, stiff, inflamed, and painful. Meadowsweet can also be used to treat inflammatory conditions including gout, rheumatism, arthritis, and prostate enlargement.

Safety Considerations. Meadowsweet should be avoided by people who are allergic or sensitive to salicylates, like aspirin. Meadowsweet should not be used if constipated. Due to the high tannin content, meadowsweet is not recommended in high concentrations for long-term continual use or with conditions of chronic constipation, iron deficiency (anemia), and malnutrition, however, within the blend of the other herbs, this herb is generally safe for daily use, especially when given at optimal times of day.

German Chamomile

Matricaria recutita

Chromolithograph of Peppermint by Walther Otto Müller, C. F. Schmidt, and K. Gunther
Chromolithograph of German Chamomile by Walther Otto Müller, C. F. Schmidt, and K. Gunther from Köhler's Medizinal-Pflanzen Vol. 1 (1887), Vol. 2 (1890), and Vol. 3 (1898)

Botany. German chamomile is a self-seeding annual growing from 6 inches to 2 feet tall with branching stems and leaves that are ferny and delicate. It has a typical aster flower, which appear to be a single flower but is a flowerhead that brings together several tiny flowers, with a yellow disk being the compact center composed of many tiny tubular disc florets that create the seeds (female) encircled by strap-like white ray florets (male). In herbalism, there are 2 species of Chamomile are known, German Chamomile (Matricaria recutita or Matricaria chamomilla) and Roman Chamomile (Chamaemelum nobile). Roman Chamomile is highly useful externally, being highly volatile and sweet-scented. German Chamomile is high in volatile oil, but has higher levels of azulene, and has more digestive bitter qualities, being highly useful internally.

History. Chamomile has a far past, known in ancient Egypt, Greece, and Rome, and is presently grown throughout the world, particularly Germany, Hungary, France, Brazil, Yugoslavia, and India. Tremendous amounts of clinical, therapeutic, experimental, and scientific research has been done exposing the little white flower as such. Cultures as divergent as Western Europe, Russia, India, and here in the U.S., have all used chamomile for very similar purposes down through the centuries. The scientific research accentuates the traditional uses as a therapeutic herb for both adults and children.

Constituents. More than 120 have been identified in chamomile, including (azulene, chamazulen, and bisabolol), , terpenes (farnesene), tannins, and flavonoids (apigenin), which contribute to its vast . The essential oil derived from the flowerhead is blue due to high levels of azulene.

Qualities. Chamomile smells sweet like honey but is an effective mild bitter. It is cooling and gentle in the body and helpful in irritated or constricted states that would respond well to relaxation.

Actions. The plant carries , , , , , and biological properties, and the herb can benefit externally with , , , (vulnerary), and activity.

Our German Chamomile, Matricaria recutita, is organic, non-GMO, and Kosher. Chamomile has a remedial and therapeutic effect on a wide range of diseases and conditions of the body. The medicinal use of chamomile, in several aspects, has been studied extensively. The flower is a potential therapy for the broad treatment of diseases and conditions, attributing positive effects on the nervous, reproductive, cardiovascular, and digestive system and metabolism.

Chamomile has distributed , , and effects through the number of phenolic compounds and terpenes, full of volatile oils/essential oils and flavonoids. The antimicrobial and antibacterial activity of chamomile has been exhibited in several studies, with the flower shown to have antibacterial activity against: several Streptococcus species (S. pyogenes, S. mutans, S. salivarius, S. faecalis, S. sanguis), Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella enterica, Salmonella typhi, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus vulgaris, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. This antibacterial action could be beneficial externally on wounds with Salve, and internally for treating cold, flu, sore throat, respiratory illness, and infection with Tincture or Tea. The herb can help cold, flu, and infection and help with the aches, pains, and debility that come with sickness. The Tea or 1 mL Tincture with 2-4 oz (1⁄4-1⁄2 c) water can be used as a mouthwash. As a mouthwash, chamomile can treat gingivitis by decreasing plaque, biofilm accumulation, and gingival bleeding. One study concluded the mouthwash of chamomile can be used therapeutically for chronic periodontitis. The mouthwash also shows an effect, preventing and limiting tooth decay. Dental caries are cavities or holes in the outer two layers of a tooth, the enamel and the dentin, and they are caused by bacteria, which metabolize carbohydrates (sugars) to form organic acids that dissolve tooth enamel. As an antibacterial, chamomile is effective against the prominent bacteria that causes caries, Streptococcus mutans, which has been shown to succumb to the herb. The antifungal activity of chamomile has been shown in several studies, with the flower showing antifungal activity against: Candida albicans and Aspergillus species. This antifungal action could be helpful externally on urinary and vaginal yeast infections with Salve or Tea to clean and rinse after bathroom during urinary and vaginal infections or after-birth, and internally with Tea or Tincture for helping the body fight urinary, vaginal, and fungal infections.

"I have oftentimes cured tedious quartans and tertians, by giving half a pint of the crude juice of camomille, an hour before coming of the fit, and repeating the same dose for four or five fits."
– William Salmon, M.D., Practical Physick (1692), page 13

-rich chamomile is beneficial for general health of body function at the cellular level, boosting the survival and growth of cells. Together with and biological properties, chamomile has strong antioxidant activity. The herb possesses activity that allows the use to prevent or treat disease and illness. The flavonoid compounds that possess antioxidant activity showed high free radical scavenging activity preventing cellular death, prevented the increase of indicators of oxidative stress (superoxide dismutase globule and plasma malondialdehyde), and decreased lipid peroxidation, which causes damage to lipids within cell membrane leading to cell damage and death. It also increased catalase, which is an enzyme with potent antioxidant properties that help the body rid toxic levels of hydrogen peroxide that the body produces during the metabolic process. Catalase occurs naturally in a wide array of plant-based foods, including garlic, leeks, onions, shallots, apricots, avocados, carrots, cherries, cucumbers, parsnips, potatoes, zucchini, radishes, spinach, and cruciferous vegetables, including cabbage, cauliflower, broccoli, kale, collards, and turnip greens.

The relaxing and actions of chamomile can be experienced not only when used internally, but externally as well, working directly on the nervous system easing anxiety and stress-related conditions and tension in the body. The benefits of chamomile as a working externally are through the effect and its aroma. The relaxing properties can be locally applied where needed working on nerves and muscles, easing tension and anxiety, alleviating any muscle spasms and cramps, relieving aches and growing pains, encouraging easy rest and sleep, and relaxing the whole body and mind with the aroma. Internally, chamomile can ease restlessness, alleviate muscle spasms, ease the body and mind into relaxation and sedation, alleviate insomnia, and increase sleep quality. The sweet honey-like aroma can be soothing and pacifying in times of restlessness, tension, and anxiety when its Salve is applied to the chest. For anxious or restless children or teething infants, Chamomile Salve can be applied to the chest and a drop of Chamomile Tincture or a teaspoon of Tea is helpful. The Salve of chamomile can be applied to the chest, neck, or inner wrists for aromatherapy that is calming and relaxing, which can be therapeutic in times of stress and anxiety. Chamomile can provide therapy for anxiety and depression. Chamomile can be used for anxiety and as a mild antidepressant, specifically its Tea or Tincture used on a consistent basis. The flavonoid, apigenin, is a powerful phytochemical that interacts with benzodiazepine cell receptors that have anti-anxiety (anxiolytic) and sedative effects.

One of the longest known and most firmly established properties of chamomile is the anti-inflammatory activity. Inflammation is a complex bodily response to injury or infection. Anti-inflammatory herbs, like chamomile, address tissue injury in a similar way to the inflammatory response of reparative and protective responses to tissue injury, while alleviating pain and loss of proper function. Chamomile is rich in terpenes, such as bisabolol and chamazulene, which contribute to the anti-inflammatory properties. Chamomile inhibited protein denaturation, stabilized red blood cell membrane, and reduced nitric oxide, indicating the anti-inflammatory properties. Chamomile Salve is useful in dermatological ailments and inflammation of the skin. It can reduce swelling and inflammation caused by abrasions, infections, and wounds. As a vulnerary, chamomile promotes wound healing, skin regeneration, and tissue granulation. Chamomile's antimicrobial properties can disinfect wounds to keep them clean and protected from pathogenic microorganisms during the healing process to inhibit infection and prolonged recovery. It can relieve and heal when applied to conditions like wounds, skin abrasions, cuts, scrapes, diaper rashes, eczema, bruising, perineal tears, and vaginal infections. Chamomile was also shown to reduce the dark rings under the eyes and puffiness (periocular zone swelling). Salve can be gently applied with the ring fingers completely around the eye to reduce dark circles and puffiness. The dermal application of the flower ameliorated physical stiffness, improved function, and decreased the need for internal pain-relievers. Salve can be used on joints and areas with swelling, pain, and inflammation. As it works externally as an anti-inflammatory, Tea or Tincture is useful to allay internal inflammation and relieve pain as well. Chamomile has demonstrated to help pain associated with headache, breast pain preceding the menstrual period (mastalgia), and labor and childbirth. Chamomile has exhibited therapeutic effect on both male and female reproductive systems. The herb has a protective effect on both male and female systems by influencing sexual hormone levels and protecting male and female reproductive tissues and system. For the female function, chamomile has shown to have a protective effect against torsion/detorsion-induced damage to ovary tissue, alleviate premenstrual syndrome (PMS), ease period pain and cramping (primary dysmenorrhea), and reduce menstrual bleeding. For the male function, chamomile has a protective effect against torsion/detorsion-induced damage on testis tissue and against formaldehyde in the reproductive system because of the activity, and the herb can increase testosterone levels and significantly enhance sperm count, motility, and viability. This was shown after administering chamomile therapeutically for 30 days. Chamomile Tea or Tincture can be therapeutically used monthly before and during menstruation and used for benefits on the male system, including testosterone levels and sperm health.

Chamomile's anti-inflammatory action can help the body as a whole, but also particularly alleviate inflammation of the digestive system. Combining , , anti-inflammatory, antiseptic, and mild bitter actions, chamomile is a wonderful herb for the digestive system. Each of the compounds act together as a biological whole contributing to the to create an effective digestive . The soothing carminative, anti-inflammatory, and properties are useful for digestive system inflammation. The terpene oils have anti-inflammatory and antispasmodic effects upon the mucous lining and the muscle layers of the alimentary canal (gastrointestinal tract), which includes the digestive organs, the esophagus, stomach, and intestines. The herb acts as an in the gut by targeting the smooth muscles in the digestive tract, easing aches and spams. With the properties, chamomile soothes and relaxes the system by easing discomfort caused by gas. The herb increases overall blood flow to the digestive system through vasodilatory activity, widening the blood vessels. Part of the sedation effects of chamomile, this creates anti-hypertensive activity by lowering blood pressure and decreasing the risks of the cardiovascular system. With the nervine action on the central nervous system, it eases the impact of stress that can alter digestive function. The ability to ease physical symptoms, as well as underlying psychological tension, is one of the greatest benefits of herbs in stress, anxiety, and depression. Although a sweet honey-like aroma, chamomile is a mild bitter. Bitter herbs are bitter to the taste. They stimulate the digestive system by first increasing saliva in the mouth. Saliva breaks down food with the help of the enzyme salivary amylase, which starts the digestion process. Bitters, like chamomile, encourage appetite and stimulate the release of digestive juices from the pancreas, duodenum, and liver. Bitters aid the liver in detoxification work and increase flow of bile, and help the gut wall repair damage. With valuable digestive activity, chamomile can help with colic, gas, indigestion (dyspepsia), heartburn, abdominal and gastric pain, griping pains (sharp abdominal pains), diarrhea, digestive inflammation, nausea and vomiting, and digestive distress. Chamomile can be used as part of a broad treatment for inflammatory conditions of the digestive system, including irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Chamomile has exhibited significant therapeutic effects in treating gastric ulcers and digestive distress. The herb can reduce acidity in the stomach and inhibit the growth of bacteria that contribute to ulcer development. Its Tea can be used as a mouthwash, for mouth sores, lesions, and canker sores (aphthous ulcers) that affect the soft lining of the mouth. Chamomile can be helpful in metabolic disorders and conditions supporting the body systems including the digestive system. The herb has been studied to have antidiabetic activity. The flavonoids, including apigenin, were able to restrict sucrose and glucose transports and regulate sugar absorption. They also inhibited enzyme activity of α-amylase and maltase, which bind to and break down sugars to digest and enter the bloodstream. The flavonoids suppressed sorbitol (sugar alcohol) accumulation under high-glucose conditions. The herb also suppressed advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) formation, which are formed in high amounts due to hyperglycemic conditions where glucose tends to build up in the bloodstream. In clinical trial, chamomile was shown to control fatty acids and blood sugar levels and increase insulin sensitivity.

The therapeutic use of chamomile has been studied for its role in cancer research. The therapeutic use of turmeric has been studied for its role in cancer research. Herbs are not a "cure-all" and are not a substitute for medical care. There is lacking information and more research needed in this field, including determining the optimal dosage, bioavailability, and efficacy of herbs for this type of therapeutic treatment, however, the anticancer and antitumor activity on several cancer cell lines of the herb is worth noting for scientific objectivity. In combination therapy, chamomile has shown the ability to help reduce nausea, anxiety, and depression in those undergoing necessary life-saving chemotherapy. Chamomile represents a potential in anticancer treatments. The anticancer properties of chamomile appear to be linked to apoptosis and necrosis and a decrease in the migration and invasion ability of oncogenic cells that cause the development of tumors. The body uses several different methods of cell death to rid itself of abnormal, harmful, or unneeded cells. Apoptosis and necrosis are mechanisms for a cell's death, which are promising targets for anticancer therapy. Cancer cells evade apoptosis, though the immune system depends on it. Chamomile was reported to activate the apoptotic pathway and induce apoptosis in cancer cells. Chamomile was also shown as a cancer protective agent with the ability to regulate tumor angiogenesis (growth). Chamomile showed cytotoxic activity against murine fibroblast cell line, cervical carcinoma cell line, rhabdomyosarcoma cell line, Ehrlich ascites carcinoma cells, liver cancer cell line, and lung adenocarcinoma cell line. Anticancer activity of chamomile has been shown against 2 species of human promyelocytic leukemia cell lines. Studies demonstrate an anti-proliferative effect on human breast cancer cells and protective effect against colorectal cancer. These findings indicate the ability of incorporating and combining herbal therapy with the life-saving modern practices.

Safety Considerations. Chamomile may cause allergic reactions to those sensitive to plants in the family.

Black Pepper

Piper nigrum

Chromolithograph of Black Pepper by Walther Otto Müller, C. F. Schmidt, and K. Gunther
Chromolithograph of Black Pepper by Walther Otto Müller, C. F. Schmidt, and K. Gunther from Köhler's Medizinal-Pflanzen Vol. 1 (1887), Vol. 2 (1890), and Vol. 3 (1898)

Botany. It is a perennial vine with a round woody mainstem and simple broadly ovate leaves attached to stalks on joints of the branches. Small globular fruits are red berries when ripe, however, they are harvested before ripening and then dried, where enzymes in the berries cause the skin to turn black, resulting in a black coarsely wrinkled peppercorn.

History. In ancient Egypt, black peppercorns were used in their mummification rituals and have been found in Ramses II (1303–1213 BC) nostrils. Pepper is mentioned by Roman writers in the fifth century, and it was said Attila the Hun (d. 453 AD) demanded, among other things, 3000 pounds of black pepper in exchange for not attacking the city of Rome. Black pepper is used all over the world and is a universally accepted ingredient in many applications.

Constituents. Black pepper is rich in volatile oils, oleoresins, and alkaloids. Compounds include piperine, piperic acid, piperlonguminine, pellitorine, piperolein B, piperamide, piperettine, and (-)-kusunokinin.

Qualities. Black pepper is pungent and spicy in taste but calming in the digestive tract. It is a potent enhancer, stimulating the effects of other flavors and actions of other herbs in the blend.

Actions. Black pepper is widely used as a spice to flavor of food, however, black pepper, containing bioactive compounds, has biological properties as a pungent , , , , , , and .

Our black peppercorn, Piper nigrum, is organic, non-GMO, and Kosher. The properties of black pepper can help aid digestion and ease gas and flatulence. Antimicrobial activity was recorded against a wide range of pathogens, which indicates the herb’s protective and healing effects during sickness and prevention. Studies also reported its antioxidant effects against a series of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. As an antioxidant and antimicrobial, black peppercorn enhances the herbal blend’s ability to ease illness symptoms and restore health to the body. Black pepper can stimulate the bioavailability of the herbal blend, and therefore can enhance other actions. It assures the rapid delivery and distribution of the other active principles of the entire herbal blend to the vital systems in the body. In extremely small amounts, it can dramatically increase the efficiency of most other herbs. A major component of black pepper is the alkaloid, piperine, which has been used to enhance the bioavailability of certain compounds, making it useful in an herbal blend enhancing potency. Piperine, a compound in black peppercorn, enhances the antidepressant activity of turmeric. The bioavailability of turmeric has been the limitation with its medicinal use. Bioavailability is the rate at which the body absorbs a substance or nutrient. Turmeric, particularly curcumin, is practically insoluble in water. Due to the hydrophobic (repels from water) nature of curcumin, turmeric has a low absorption rate in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. It is rapidly metabolized in the liver and intestinal wall, also contributing to turmeric being poorly absorbed into the body through the bloodstream. Consuming black pepper, which contains piperine, can improve the bioavailability of turmeric. Piperine enhances the absorption of curcumin in turmeric by 2,000% compared to consuming solely turmeric. It should be noted that if using piperine long-term, it should be used cautiously, as piperine is a potent inhibitor of drug metabolism and may cause toxicity in people taking specific drugs. Our herbal preparations contain a small amount of black pepper to stimulate and increase the bioavailability and the benefits of other herbs. The amount of black pepper is small and is not a pure form of piperine but the whole herb, which contains piperine along with other beneficial plant chemicals. One of the main benefits of using whole herbs is shown through the benefits of using all the herb’s interactive chemicals as opposed to the potential toxic reactions of highly concentrated doses of one particularly chosen chemical.

Potato Vodka

40% alcohol by volume

Idaho Russet Burbank potato

Our vodka is 100% potato-distilled, grain-free, gluten-free, sugar-free, and carbohydrate-free. It contains no additives, citric acids, or glyceride. Our vodka is American-handcrafted in Idaho using non-GMO Idaho Russet Burbank potatoes and water from natural well sources near the Grand Teton Mountains. Vodka is created through fermentation when alcohol is formed, then distillation, dilution, and filtration to purify vodka, remove any unwanted elements and excess water, and increase the alcohol by volume content. It is distilled in a four-column apparatus to control the removal of impurities and filtered 5 times for extreme clarification. Our vodka is a clean pure neutral spirit that highlights the aromas, flavors, and bitters of herbs.

Our tinctures are made using traditional practice methods of tincture-concocting with regard to maximum herbal potency and bioavailability of the herb's nutrients being absorbed within the body. Tinctures are crafted at room temperature through the timely method known as maceration. It is the soaking and softening of herbs at which time the equilibrium of the herbal potency is reached inside and outside the herb within the alcohol. The medium, called solvent or menstruum, for extraction of herbs depend upon the herb's solubility in that solvent. Alcohol, as the solvent, can extract herbs well and produce a potent herbal extract. It can extract both fat/oil soluble (non-polar) and water soluble (polar) herbal constituents. It can soften harder materials like roots and extract a broad range of , including those that aren’t water-soluble, like volatile oils, terpenes, alkaloids, and resins, while water (tea) is narrowed toward only water-soluble compounds. Alcohol is a wonderful carrier of herbs, being absorbed quickly through the bloodstream into the body. The body does not need to break down a liquid extract (tincture or tea), all the herbal compounds are already extracted, allowing them to be readily and quickly absorbed into the system. The alcohol in tinctures preserves herbs preventing the breakdown and loss of beneficial herbal properties. Because the tincture is a potent concentrated herbal, the amount of alcohol in a dose is extremely small (0.38 g alcohol), making tinctures completely safe – the equivalency to eating a ripe banana (up to 0.50 g of alcohol) or fermented foods (rolls 1.2 g of alcohol per 100 g) or drinking orange or grape juice. It can always be added to a hot cup of water or herbal tea to evaporate most of the alcohol, if desired.

Florida does not recognize herbal tinctures as alcoholic beverages. The state's law defines alcoholic beverages to exclude products that are "unfit for beverage purposes," and tinctures generally are not suitable for beverage use and are recognized as exempt from the jurisdiction of the Florida Division of Alcoholic Beverages and Tobacco (ABT).


ALL packaging and shipping materials can be repurposed and reused.


ALL packaging and shipping materials can be recycled after use.


Tea bags and brewed-out herbs can be composted. Bags compost in 12 months.


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